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  • GUIHAIA
  • 2024, Vol.44, No.4
  • Publication date:2024-04-25
【Recommended article】LUO Maofang et al. Under the leadership of the Chinese presidency, the second part of the 15th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity(CBD)adopted 62 decisions, in particular Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework(KM-GBF), which is based on the theory of transformative changes. KM-GBF, its achievements, gaps, and lessons learned, and the experience and achievements of other relevant multilateral environmental agreements, sets out an ambitious plan to implement broad-based action to bring about a transformation in our societies' relationship with biodiversity by 2030, and draws a new blueprint for global biodiversity governance. This paper provides an interpretation of the three core targets of the framework — the “3030 target” for protected areas, resource mobilisation, and digital sequence information of genetic resources, a brief introduction to the relevant decisions to ensure the implementation of the framework, and recommendations for future conservation actions in China:(1)To strengthen the mainstreaming of biodiversity conservation. Revision of China's Biodiversity Conservation Strategy and Action Plan(2011-2030)is an opportunity to involve the whole government and society in the process and to take action to promote the goals and targets of the KM-GBF;(2)To further develop detailed conservation plans, clarify the scopes, purposes and management measures of conservation areas, and implement responsible authorities and specific measures for implementing the plans. Researches on the Other Effective area-based Conservation Measures(OECMs)are needed to incorporate into the management system for biodiversity conservation;(3)To develop an operational indicator system and monitoring plan in accordance with the monitoring requirements of the framework targets;(4)To continue to strengthen awareness and education on biodiversity conservation, raise public awareness and attention to biodiversity conservation, and promote sustainable production and sustainable consumption in society as a whole;(5)To promote international cooperation vigorously to explore and promote Nature-based Solutions on a larger scale, and find pathways for economic and social development that have positive and beneficial effects on nature.

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Current Issue 2024,Vol.44,No.4

Supplementary -- 2022
  • 2024,No.4 PDF(whole issue)
    2024,44(4)    [Abstract](700)    [PDF]()
  • 2024,No.4 Cover
    2024,44(4)    [Abstract](603)    [PDF](263)
  • 2024,No.4 Contents
    2024,44(4)    [Abstract](604)    [PDF](202)
  • New Taxa and New Discoveries
  • TONG Ling1, SHEN Jiahao2,3,4, ZHAO Xiao1, YAN Yuehong5, ZHU Yufen6, WU Jianyong1, GU Yufeng5*, LIU Xingjian2,3,4*
    Isoëtes changxingensis (Isoëtaceae), a new tetraploid quillwort species from China
    Isoëtes changxingensis, a new species from Zhejiang Province, China, is illustrated and described here. The new species morphologically resembles I. baodongii, but it differs from the latter by 44 chromosomes, megaspore 317 - 411 μm(mean=360 μm)[vs. 22, 390 - 510 μm(mean=450 μm)]. It is also similar to I. longpingii in terms of megaspore size, with the difference that I. changxingensis rhizome corms 3-lobed, leaves 2 - 3 mm wide at middle, megaspore echinate-cristate(vs. 2-lobed, 1 mm, tuberculate-cristate). This species is distinguished from I. sinensis by its smaller megaspore, different surface ornamentation, and leaf blade 20 - 60 cm [vs. 340 - 450 μm(mean=409 μm), cristate, 15 - 30 cm]. According to Guidlines for Using the IUCN Red List Criteria, the conservation status of I. changxingensis should be regarded as endangered(EN).
    2024,44(4):611-618    [Abstract](798)    [PDF](235)
  • WEN Fang1,2, WEI Yigang1,2, LI Xiaojuan1,2, XIONG Chi1,2, CAI Lei3*
    Radiaticorollarus, a new replacement name for Actinostephanus(Gesneriaceae, Didymocarpoideae)
    Actinostephanus F. Wen, Y. G. Wei & L. F. Fu is a monotypic genus in Gesneriaceae endemic to Guangdong, China. It is named for its radiate corolla lobes, the relatively rare character among Gesneriaceae. Some scholars have suggested that the name Actinostephanus is easily confused with the generic name of the extinct fossil phytoplankton Actinostephanos Khursevich, and proposed that Actinostephanus should be treated as a later homonym of Actinostephanos. According to the International Code of Nomenclature of Algae, Fungi and Plants(Shenzhen Code)(2018), we here propose a new name Radiaticorollarus Y. G. Wei, F. Wen & Lei Cai for the later homonym Actinostephanus F. Wen, Y. G. Wei & L. F. Fu, and treat Actinostephanus enpingensis F. Wen, Y. G. Wei & Z. B. Xin as a synonym of the new combination Radiaticorollarus enpingensis(F. Wen, Y. G. Wei & Z. B. Xin)F. Wen, Y. G. Wei & Lei Cai.
    2024,44(4):619-620    [Abstract](834)    [PDF](241)
  • JIANG Shuhao, JIA Zefeng*
    A new species of the lichen genus Phaeophyscia (Physciaceae)
    Based on morphological, anatomical, chemical and molecular systematic methods, a taxonomic study was carried out on the lichen genus Phaeophyscia collected from Mount Tai. One species, P. taishanensis is reported as new to science. It is characterized by the following characters: white or hyaline cortical hairs sparsely on the upper surface of the marginal peripheral zones of the lobes; white medulla; black lower surface with sometimes white or pale brown ends; sparse cortical hairs occasionally on upper portion of thalline margin; and ascospores brown, Physcia-type, sized(18.0-20.5)μm ×(9.0-10.0)μm. Based on phenotypical characteristics, the similarities and differences between the new species and similar species were discussed. the maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed with ITS sequence, and the sequence analysis was carried out. A detailed morphological description and pictures of the characteristics of this new species are provided. The discovery of this new species has accumulated basic data for the study of Physciaceae biodiversity.
    2024,44(4):621-628    [Abstract](700)    [PDF](225)
  • MA Husheng, LU Zhaocen, XU Weibin, PAN Bo*
    Primulina pingguoensis, a new species of Gesneriaceae from Guangxi, China
    Primulina pingguoensis H. S. Ma & B. Pan, a new species of Primulina Hance, Gesneriaceae from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, is illustrated and described here. The new species morphologically resembles P. carinata Y. G. Wei, F. Wen & H. Z. Lü, but it differs from the latter by lobes narrowly lanceolate-linear, length-width ratio more than 2(rounded-ovate, length-width ratio less than 1.5), 8-10 purple stripes from corolla throat to the bottom of corolla tube, the same color with corolla, without honey guides(vs. brown stripes, different color with corolla, 2 yellow honey guides inside), leaf blade elliptic to broadly ovate,(6.5-9.5)cm ×(4.5-6.5)cm [(vs. broadly elliptic to ovate,(4.0-5.0)cm ×(3.0-4.0)cm], leaf blade base slightly cuneate(vs. rounded), corolla tube tubular, ventrally carinate,(vs. narrowly funnelform, strongly carinate, forming a clear keel), etc. The conservation status of P. pingguoensis is considered as ‘Critically Endangered'(CR)according to the IUCN red list categories and criteria.
    2024,44(4):629-634    [Abstract](798)    [PDF](228)
  • ZHANG Yanmeng1, WANG Weicheng2, WANG Yuhua1, ZHONG Chunjiao1, HU Ling1*
    Rhizocarpon sichuanense, a new species from Southwest China
    In this paper, we study in Rhizocarpon Ramond ex DC. species by the method of combining phenotypic characteristics(morphology, anatomy and chemistry)with genotypic characteristics(ITS sequence). The aims of this present paper are to clarify the status of some species and explore the relationship between phenotype and genotype in Rhizocarpon. During the study on Rhizocarpon species from southwest China, R. sichuanense Y. M. Zhang, L. Hu & W. C. Wang sp. nov. is described as a new species in this genus. The new species is morphologically similar to R. cinereonigrum Vain and R. sinense Zahlbr., which also produces brown thallus, medulla I-, 8-spored ascus and brown ascospores with 1-septa. But it can be distinguished by the scattered, areolate to subsquamulose thallus, a distinct black prothallus, large ascospores are [(27-)32-42.5] μm × [12.5-17.5(-20)] μm and the presence of barbatic acid is in the thallus. In phylogenetic trees, it is also similar to R. badioatrum(Flörke ex Spreng. )Th. Fr. which can be distinguished by the more continuous thallus with diffractaic acid or without secondary products, and the smaller spores [(23-36)μm ×(13-16)μm] than this new species. The phylogenic results are as follows:(1)The new species R. sichuanense belongs to badioatrum group which belongs to Rhizocarpon subg. Phaeothallus;(2)It is unsuitable to classify some groups only based on anatomical characteristics(spore size and separation type)in Rhizocarpon, the chemical characteristics should also be considered. In this paper, the achievement of ITS sequences provide the basic data for an establishment of a more reasonable and natural classification system. In addition, we provide high resolution pictures of morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics as well as detailed descriptions of the new species. The key to the species of Rhizocarpon subg. Phaeothallus with 1-septa brown spore(Badioatrum group)in the world is also provided, which will provide basic data for the further studies in this group.
    2024,44(4):635-645    [Abstract](782)    [PDF](223)
  • YANG Zongzong1, HUANG Yahui2, ZHAO Xiaolin3, ZHANG Yunling3*
    Didymophysa Boiss., a newly recorded genus of Brassicaceae from Xinjiang, China
    Wuqia is located in the western part of Xinjiang, with a special flora. Based on field investigations of the region, through specimen research and literature review, Didymophysa Boiss., a newly recorded genus of Brassicaceae from western Xinjiang, China is reported. Didymophysa Boiss. have three species, D. fedtschenkoana Regel, D. aucheri Boiss. and D. fenestrata. The morphological description and the distinctive features to the species of Didymophysa are provided, and the detailed morphological description and photographs of D. fedtschenkoana Regel are provided. Lastly, the biogeographical significance of the discovery of newly recorded genus and species was discussed, as well as the plant diversity, specificity, and work recommendations in the western plateau region of Xinjiang.
    2024,44(4):646-649    [Abstract](808)    [PDF](212)
  • GAO Liqin1,2, LI Yonglong1, CUI Ling1, YANG Guangyao1, ZHANG Wengen1*
    Morphological supplementary description of Indocalamus semifalcatus (H. R. Zhao et Y. L. Yang) T. P. Yi(Bambusoideae)
    In the protologue of Indocalamus semifalcatus(H. R. Zhao et Y. L. Yang)T. P. Yi, there were only parts of vegetative organs reported. Based on field population investigation, indoor stereoscopic anatomy and scanning electron microscope(SEM), its reproductive organs, complete vegetative organs and micromorphological features of the abaxial leaf epidermis, were described and illustrated herein, and its geographical distribution was also updated. The results were as follows:(1)Reproductive organ features: panicle, spikelet and spike densely white pubescent, glume, pelea and lemma both smooth and glabrous, stamens 3, anthers purple, stigmas 2, white, feathery.(2)Vegetative features: culms up to 4.5 m tall, up to 2 cm in diameter, culm sheath auricle semifalcate or weak, culm sheath erect close to culm, foliage auricle weak or absent, ligule margin with densely ciliate; both sides of leaf blade homochromatic and glabrous.(3)Micromorphologic characteristics of the abaxial leaf: stomatal apparatus invisible, eight to ten elongated papillae covered the stomatal apparatus, silica bodies saddle-shaped, micro-hairs and macro-hairs both absent.(4)The new distribution area was Guanyin Mountain of Guiyang in Guizhou. The species is the most similar to I. longiauritus Hand.-Mazz., differed by culm sheath and leaf sheath with auricles semifalcate or rare, culm up to 4.5 m tall and 2 cm in diameter.
    2024,44(4):650-656    [Abstract](776)    [PDF](216)
  • LIU Yongying1*, NIU Junying1, TANG Qiming2, HO Boon-Chuan3, WEI Yumei2
    Bryum atrovirens Brid. complex(Bryaceae, Bryophyta) of China, including a new species record
    The Bryum atrovirens Brid. complex in China was critically revised based on morphological evidence, with a focus on the tubers. The aim of the study is to clarify the morphological delimitation, and geographical distribution for each recognized species of this complex in China. The results show that:(1)Nine species are recognized for the complex in China, namely B. apiculatum Schwägr., B. atrovirens Brid., B. bornholmense Wink. & R. Ruthe, B. clavatum (Schimp.)Müll. Hal., B. radiculosum Brid., B. rubens Mitt., B. sauteri Bruch & Schimp., B. stellituber Arts and B. tuberosum Mohamed & Damanhuri. B. stellituber represents a new record for China, whereas sporophytes are for the first time recorded in two populations of the new record, and the rhizoidal tubers of B. atrovirens and B. rubens are first documented from Chinese material.(2)Species of the B. atrovirens Brid. complex are ‘ephemeral' colonists adapted to the exploitation of short-lived habitat gaps. Asexual reproduction by means of tubers was observed to be common and numerous. Identification of species within the complex relies heavily on the tuber characteristics, including its distribution(along short or long rhizoids, clustered or not), color, shape, size, cell wall thickness, presence of surface protuberance, and degree of protuberance when present.(3)The distribution at global and Chinese provincial levels for each species is summarized. An identification key to species of the B. atrovirens Brid. complex in China is presented. In conclusion, the species identification of the B. atrovirens Brid. complex can be rapidly accomplished based on the morphological characteristics exhibited by the tuber. The species newly record adds data for the moss in China.
    2024,44(4):657-669    [Abstract](778)    [PDF](228)
  • LIU Yongying1*, NIU Junying1, TANG Qiming2, HO Boon-Chuan3, WEI Yumei2
    Bryum atrovirens Brid. complex(Bryaceae, Bryophyta)of China, including a new species record
    The Bryum atrovirens Brid. complex in China was critically revised based on morphological evidence, with a focus on the tubers. The aim of the study is to clarify the morphological delimitation, and geographical distribution for each recognized species of this complex in China. The results show that:(1)Nine species are recognized for the complex in China, namely B. apiculatum Schwägr., B. atrovirens Brid., B. bornholmense Wink. & R. Ruthe, B. clavatum (Schimp.)Müll. Hal., B. radiculosum Brid., B. rubens Mitt., B. sauteri Bruch & Schimp., B. stellituber Arts and B. tuberosum Mohamed & Damanhuri. B. stellituber represents a new record for China, whereas sporophytes are for the first time recorded in two populations of the new record, and the rhizoidal tubers of B. atrovirens and B. rubens are first documented from Chinese material.(2)Species of the B. atrovirens Brid. complex are ‘ephemeral' colonists adapted to the exploitation of short-lived habitat gaps. Asexual reproduction by means of tubers was observed to be common and numerous. Identification of species within the complex relies heavily on the tuber characteristics, including its distribution(along short or long rhizoids, clustered or not), color, shape, size, cell wall thickness, presence of surface protuberance, and degree of protuberance when present.(3)The distribution at global and Chinese provincial levels for each species is summarized. An identification key to species of the B. atrovirens Brid. complex in China is presented. In conclusion, the species identification of the B. atrovirens Brid. complex can be rapidly accomplished based on the morphological characteristics exhibited by the tuber. The species newly record adds data for the moss in China.
    2024,44(4):657-669    [Abstract](706)    [PDF](354)
  • Systems and Evolution
  • ZHOU Yun*, WEI Yanyan
    Plastid phylogenomics resolving phylogeny and evolution of Semiliquidambar cathayensis
    Semiliquidambar cathayensis is treated as a grade-two protected plant in China. However, its phylogenetic relationships with species from Hamamelidaceae and Altingiaceae remain unclear. In order to analyze the phylogenetic relationships and adaptive evolution of chloroplast genomes between S. cathayensis and its closely related taxa including species from Hamamelidaceae and Altingiaceae, we reconstructed the maximum likelihood tree and the Bayesian tree to discover the phylogenetic relationships between S. cathayensis and its closely related taxa from 24 sequences that representing 22 species, and further detected the correlation between adaptive sites and selective pressure of protein coding genes under varying models including site model, clade model and branch model. Altingiaceae clade was chosen as the foreground clade. The results were as follows:(1)A total of 133 genes were annotated, including 88 protein-coding genes(11 genes with intron), 37 tRNA genes and eight rRNA genes.(2)Eight chloroplast genomes representing eight species from S. cathayensis and Altingia, Liquidambar were relatively conservative in sequence length, gene number and composition, GC content, and there was not obvious diversity in the four boundaries. Relatively high variation interspecific were also detected in LSC and SSC regions among these eight chloroplast genomes, while the IR regions were high conservatism.(3)Phylogenetic trees showed that S. cathayensis and sampled species of Altingiaceae clustered a group, which further divided into three clades, namely Clade I, Clade Ⅱ and Clade Ⅲ. The phylogenetic relationships among these clades remain unclear due to hybridization or incomplete lineage sorting(ILS)according to the results of test of ILS.(4)The chloroplast genes such as ndhA, ndhG and rps12 were subjected to selection pressure under the clade model and branch model. Furthermore, 28 sites of ten genes were detected under positive selection with P-value greater than 0.99 based on the site model, which may be related to the adaptive evolution of Altingiaceae. In this study, the results of plastid phylogenomics supports that S. cathayensis belongs to Altingiaceae. Several coding genes among these species of Altingiaceae may have adaptive evolution. These results will provide data for the further resource protection of homonym drugs and pharmacognostic researches of ethnodrug.
    2024,44(4):670-681    [Abstract](690)    [PDF](235)
  • CHEN Shengyu, TANG Xiaoyun, XIAO Yun, HAN Ru, ZHAI Junwen, WU Shasha*
    mail)shashawu1984@126.com。Pollen morphology and phylogenetic relationship of 14 Oxalis species
    Most Oxalis are highly ornamentally valuable, but their taxonomy is difficult, which greatly limits the landscape application of this genus. The pollen morphology and exine ornamentation of 14 species of the Oxalis were observed using scanning electron microscopy, and their pollen morphology was clustered and analyzed to explore their interspecific relationship based on the results of palynological clustering. The results were as follows:(1)The pollens of the 14 species observed were subspheroidal or oblatesphere, and in polar view they were all 3-colpate, of which 96.3% were medium-sized and 3.7% were small, with different style types showing the largest grains were produced in stamens with long filaments and the smallest ones in stamens with short filaments; most pollen grains were 3-colpate, sparsely 2-colpate and 4-colpate, O. stellata and O. pes-caprae, respectively; exine ornamentation could be divided into two categories: supra-areolate and reticulate.(2)For the first time, three species with aberrant pollen grains were observed, namely O. glabra, O. simplex and O. pes-caprae. The aberrant pollens exhibited as abnormal number and arrangement of the colpi, but normal exine structure. There were 2-zonocolpate grains in O. glabra, spiralaperturate grains in O. simplex, and 4-zonocolpate grains and spiralaperturate grains in O. pes-caprae. (3)The 14 species could be divided into two categories according to the exine ornamentation, one included O. massonorum and O. nidulans with supra-areolate pollen. The other category included 12 species with reticulate pollen. Species in the latter category could be further divided into four types: O. glabra, O. versicolor, and O. tenuifolia were more closely related; O. compressa, O. pes-caprae, O. namaquana, and O. fabaefolia were more closely related; O. bowiei, O. stellata, and O. perdicaria were more closely related; O. zeekoevleyensis and O. simplex were relatively distantly related to other Oxalis. The results of this study show that species with similar pollen morphology have certain similarity in plant morphology, and the pollen morphology characteristics can be used as the basis for the study of phylogenetic relationship and taxonomic classification, which can further provide a theoretical basis for the selection of parents in Oxalis cross-breeding.
    2024,44(4):682-698    [Abstract](720)    [PDF](243)
  • ZHANG Shilan1, WANG Yucen1, LIU Wenliang1,2*
    Study on × Bolboschoenoplectus mariqueter and its related species based on DNA barcoding
    The taxonomic status of × Bolboschoenoplectus mariqueter(Tang & F.T.Wang)Tatanov is still up for debate. To clarify this status and explore its genetic relationship with closely related species, the candidate DNA barcode sequences of one nuclear gene(ITS)and five chloroplast genes(matK, ndhF, rbcL, trnL and trnL-trnF)were used for PCR amplification and sequencing of 21 individuals from four species, including × Bolboschoenoplectus mariqueter and its related species. The basic local alignment search tool was then applied to evaluate the identification efficiency of the screened barcode sequences and sequence combinations. Finally, species identification analyses were performed by constructing a phylogenetic tree using the Bayesian inference method. The results were as follows:(1)The ITS + matK sequence combination showed the highest species-resolving degree of 71.4%, which could achieve interspecific differentiation and identification of × Bolboschoenoplectus mariqueter and its closely related species.(2)According to the phylogenetic tree based on ITS + matK sequence combination, samples of the same species showed better aggregation and were mostly monophyletic, with × Bolboschoenoplectus mariqueter clustered together with all Bolboschoenus(Asch.)Palla individuals, rather than Schoenoplectus(Rchb.)Palla species. All × Bolboschoenoplectus mariqueter and Bolboschoenus maritimus(Linnaeus)Palla samples formed a monophyletic clade. In conclusion, ITS + matK sequence combination appears to be the best barcode sequence for interspecific identification of × Bolboschoenoplectus mariqueter and its related species. Furthermore, × Bolboschoenoplectus mariqueter could be a synonym of Bolboschoenus maritimus rather than a natural hybrid. This study establishes a theoretical foundation for the taxonomic research on × Bolboschoenoplectus mariqueter and its closely related species.
    2024,44(4):699-709    [Abstract](742)    [PDF](213)
  • XIA Ying 1,4, LI Jieting 1,4, TANG Ming 1,2, TANG Jing1,2, ZHANG Ximin3,4*
    Embolism vulnerability analysis of petals and leaves in three species of shrub Rhododendron
    Climate change has been observed to increase the frequency and intensity of drought, which can adversely affect plant growth and development. Therefore, it is crucial to quantify plant xylem resistance to embolism, particularly in the context of global climate change, to study the process of plant response to drought. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the drought tolerance of Rhododendron cultivars and select those with strong drought resistance by using three species of shrub Rhododendron, namely Rhododendron × pulchrum ‘zihe', Rhododendron × hybridum ‘yangmeihong' and R. simsii, as the materials. We used optical techniques to construct embolism vulnerability curves in petal and leaf tissues, and measured petal and leaf anatomical structural traits, and also analyzed the correlation between xylem hydraulic function and anatomical structural traits. The results were as follows:(1)The P12, P50 and P88 values(water potential values corresponding to the occurrence of 12%, 50% and 88% embolism)of petals in Rhododendron × pulchrum ‘zihe', Rhododendron × hybridum ‘yangmeihong' and R. simsii were higher than those of leaves.(2)The embolism vulnerability of petal and leaf tissues varied among the three species, and the speed of petal and leaf embolism occurrence did not coincide, which may be an important characteristic of hybridized horticultural flowering plants.(3)The correlation analysis between P50 values and their morphological characteristics showed that the P50 values of leaves were negatively correlated with leaf palisade tissue thickness, and the P50 values of petals were positively correlated with petal thickness. In conclusion, the study suggests that the petal embolism vulnerability of the three shrubs of Rhododendron is higher than that of the leaves, and the plants preferentially sacrifice the petals to protect the leaves under drought stress. Furthermore, the embolism vulnerability may be related to the leaf palisade tissue thickness and petal thickness. Our findings provide scientific references for screening and cultivating drought-resistant Rhododendron varieties, and selecting and configuring tree species of Rhododendron plants in arid areas.
    2024,44(4):710-720    [Abstract](672)    [PDF](214)
  • A Haiying1*, YANG Rui2, YANG Liu1, DING Kaiyu1
    Anther development and formation of dehiscence pore in Rhododendron × pulchrum
    Flowers of Rhododendron have unique poricidal dehiscence anther, but the formation of the dehiscence pore and the mechanism of pollen releasing are not fully known. The purpose of this research was to study the anther development of Rhododendon × pulchrum through microdissection and paraffin section to find out how the dehiscence pore develops and what tissues are involved in its development. The results were as follows:(1)The tissue forming the apical pore and the main body of the anther diverged from the very beginning of the stamen development. The dehiscence pore is formed by breaking down of parenchyma tissue, which is derived from the apical meristem of stamen primordium. The body part of the anther comes from the archesporial cells and they develop into regular pollen sacs with multi-layered anther walls.(2)The anther wall is fully differentiated at the stages from microspore mother cell to microspore tetrad, with 6-7 layers of cells, including 1 layer of epidermis, 2-3 layers of endothecia, 1-2 layers of middle layers and 1 layer of tapetum. The middle layers soon break down after completion of microspore tetrads and the tapetum disappears before the pollen tetrads are fully mature. The epidermis and 2-3 layers of endothecia remain to the end.(3)Unlike those of longitudinal dehiscent anthers, the endothecia of Rhododendon× pulchrum are not fibrous at maturation. Instead, they are persistent and somewhat elastic through accumulation of polysaccharide granules in cells.(4)The four microspores produced by one microspore mother cell do not separate from each other and the pollens are released as tetrads, with viscous threads between pollens and among tetrads. The authors assume that the thickened multi-layer endothecia reduced the inner volume of the pollen sacs, therefore the pollen tetrads at the top are “squeezed out” from the dehiscence pore, and the viscous threads allow the pollen tetrads to be pulled out in clusters by pollinators.
    2024,44(4):721-729    [Abstract](778)    [PDF](254)
  • JIA Dongdong1,2, LI Zailiu2, XU Zhenguo1*
    Morphological and anatomical characteristics of Phyllostachys edulis seeds during formation process
    The developmental patterns of the embryo, endosperm, pericarp, and seed coat during the growth process of Phyllostachys edulis seeds were revealed in this study, flowering P. edulis was used as the material in the Haiyang Mountain, Guilin, seeds at different stages were collected and fixed. Paraffin sectioning method was employed, and the structural changes of the embryo, endosperm, pericarp, and seed coat were observed under a microscope. The results were as follows:(1)Fertilization and zygote formation in P. edulis were completed within 1 d after flowering, and the zygote entered a dormant period lasting about 5 d. The embryo underwent the stages of proembryo, coleoptile stage, embryonic growth, and mature embryo, and reached basic maturity after 40 d post-flowering. The developmental type of the embryo was categorized as monocotyledonous.(2)The endosperm developed earlier than the embryo, and its development type was categorized as nuclear endosperm, which went through four stages: free nuclear, cellularization, cell differentiation, and maturation. In the stage of cell differentiation, starch endosperm cells and aleurone layer cells were formed. The starch endosperm cells mainly accumulated starch granules, while the aleurone layer cells mainly accumulated mineral elements, lipids, and proteins, etc.(3)One day after flowering, the cells of the pericarp and seed coat exhibited regular shape, rich in contents, and intact in structure. From 10-20 d after flowering, the number of layers of endocarp and ectocarp and seed coat decreased, the shape changed, and starch granules began to appear in the mesocarp cells. From 20-60 d after flowering, as the nutrient substances of endosperm cells accumulated and their volume increased, mechanical pressure was exerted outward, resulting in the gradual dissolution of mesocarp cells, leaving only remnants of cell walls. The ectocarp cells were elongated with thickened cell walls, forming a protective structure together with the remaining cell walls of the mesocarp cells. The cortex played a crucial role in synthesizing and transporting nutrients, as well as protecting the development of the embryo and endosperm throughout the seed development process. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for improving the reproductive biology in bamboo species and understanding the development of embryo and endosperm in bamboo plants.
    2024,44(4):730-740    [Abstract](790)    [PDF](232)
  • ZHANG Yingduo1,2, ZHU Yong1, LI Qingqing2,3, WANG Yuecheng1, TAO Lei1,2, LI Lu1*
    Pollination biology of two Chinese endemic and sympatric Impatiens ( Balsaminaceae )species
    The genus Impatiens exhibits some varied floral features with a dichogamous reproductive system, in which pollination biology plays a key role in speciation and adaptive evolution. China is one of the centers of Impatiens species, including a large number of endemic and sympatric distributions, but there are few data on their pollination biology. Comparative pollination biology of two Chinese endemic and sympatric species, Impatiens corchorifolia and I. cyathiflora, were investigated, including flowering phenology, floral features, pollinators, behavior of pollinators, and as well as breeding systems. The results were as follows:(1)Morphology of spur was varied in two species, which played a key role in different floral syndromes. The spurs in I. corchorifolia and I. cyathiflora could produced a similar nectar sugar content,(45.48 ± 2.28)% and(46.12 ± 1.48)%, respectively. They could share two pollinators, Apis cerana and Vespa. However, the short spur in I. corchorifolia produced less amount of(4.57 ± 1.43)μL nectar while the long spur in I. cyathiflora yielded more nectar content of(10.15 ± 3.28)μL. And then, the latter also could be pollinated by the other insects including one species of Macroglossum and two species of Bombus.(2)The behavior of the common pollinators shared in I. corchorifolia and I. cyathiflora were obviously distinguished by their staggered flower visits and differential sizes of flower channels for visitors with inconsistent positions of pollens carried.(3)Breeding system experiments showed that species possessed obvious hybridization barriers and obvious cross-pollination. Thus, significant differences in spur morphology lead to distinct pollination syndrome differentiation and different pollinator behavior. Both species prefer cross-pollination to self-fertiliation, which greatly depend on the effective pollinators. Reproductive isolation could be maintained by different flower visiting behavior of shared pollinators, differences in floral morphology, and heterozygous discordance. It provides new evidence for a better understanding the relationships between pollination syndrome, pollinators behavior, and cross-breeding stystem in Impatiens.
    2024,44(4):741-755    [Abstract](827)    [PDF](221)
  • LI Qi1, MA Hanze1, MAMUT Jannathan1,2*
    Floral syndrome and breeding system of the spring flowering plant Iris scariosa(Iridaceae)
    Iris scariosa is a perennial spring flowering Iridaceae species with important ornamental value. To explore the floral syndrome and breeding system and promote the utilization of this germplasm, flowering phenology, floral syndrome, breeding system and pollination traits of this species were studied in field and controlled experiments. The results were as follows:(1)I. scariosa began to flowering in early-May, peak flowering period was at mid-May, and final flowering period was at late-May, the duration of flowering was 16 d.(2)Its blue-purple flowers had scent and a small amount of nectar, and individual flower duration was 2.5-3.0 d.(3)Results of pollination experiments suggested that the breeding system of I. scariosa is obligate xenogamy, without apomixes and the ability of spontaneous self-pollination.(4)I. scariosa has a generalist pollination system, with Apis mellifera, A. cerana and Halictus sp. being pollinators. These insects initiated pollination while foraging for pollen, and their visitation frequencies were(0.57±0.05),(0.42±0.04)and(0.19±0.03)times·flower-1·h-1, respectively. Floral traits of this species, such as bright flower colors, large flower display, the peak of insect visitation overlapping with the period of highest pollen viability and the optimal stigma receptivity of pollen, yellow beard appendage on the outer tepals, etc., ensure the completion of the pollination process and enhance the successful outcrossing. This study provides an important theoretical information for the resource utilization and germplasm innovation of I. scariosa.
    2024,44(4):756-765    [Abstract](831)    [PDF](234)
  • WU Min, WU Shiqi, PAN Feng, SHI Tian, ZHAO Cai*
    Genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild Pinellia ternata(Araceae)in China
    Due to global climate change(especially the repeated fluctuation of the Quaternary climate)and environmental isolation have a profound impact on the genetic diversity, genetic structure, geographical distribution pattern and population historical dynamics of modern plants. We used the research method of molecular pedigree geography to analyze the three non-coding chloroplast fragments psbK-psbI, atpF-atpH and trnL-F of 212 individuals from 19 populations in China of Pinellia ternata, a Araceae Pinellia perennial herb with high value of medicin, to explore the genetic diversity, genetic structure, geographical distribution pattern and its causes, and also explore the historical dynamics of its population. The results were as follows:(1)The total haplotype diversity(Hd)of P. ternata was 0.882 and the total nucleotide diversity(π)was 1.23 × 10-3, which means high genetic diversity at the species level.(2)The results of molecular analysis of variance(AMOVA)showed that genetic variation of P. ternata occurred mainly in 89.27% of populations, with significant genetic differentiation(FST=0.909, P<0.001)and lower within population genetic diversity(HS=0.134). The coefficient of genetic differentiation among populations was 0.855 and 0.913 respectively, NST> GST(0.01<P<0.05)indicated that the chloroplast haplotypes had obvious molecular lineage and geographical structure.(3)The central test results showed that Tajima's D value, Fu and Li's D value and Fu and Li's F* value were insignificantly positive value. Fu's Fs value was insignificantly negative value. And the mismatch analysis curve showed double peaks, indicating that the P. ternata populations had not experienced expansion events.(4)The geographical distribution of haplotype showed that the southwest and central eastern regions were characterized by higher haplotype diversity, and there were unique haplotype. For this reason, it is speculated that there were ice age shelters in these two regions during the Quaternary ice age. In a word, through the analysis of three chloroplast genes of P. ternata in different regions, we have clarified its genetic diversity, genetic structure and geographical distribution pattern. In addition, we have put forward scientific suggestions and protection strategies for molecular screening and protection of excellent provenances of P. ternata.
    2024,44(4):766-776    [Abstract](904)    [PDF](238)
  • WANG Yalan, ZHOU Luojing, ZHANG Lingyu, ZHANG Jing,BIAN Jinhui, GAO Jihai*
    Complete genome sequencing and BGLU gene family analysis of Angelica dahurica
    Angelica dahurica is a common species of medicine and food homology, which is not only a common clinical traditional Chinese medicine, but also a spice, with a wide range of uses. In order to obtain the whole genome sequence information of A. dahurica, we used A. dahurica var. formosana leaf DNA as material, and the Nanopore sequencing technology was used to establish its nucleotide sequences database, then genome assembly, function annotation and evolution analysis were carried out by bioinformatic methods. The results were as follows:(1)A total of 662 Gb of the third-generation data were obtained after fittering the original sequencing data, with the Read N50 about 32 932 bp. The assembled A. dahurica genome size was 5.6 Gb, Contig N50 was about 806 638 bp.(2)The genes were with gene annotations accounted for 66.47% after being compared with functional databases such as NR, KOG and KEGG. The result of KOG gene annotation was that the protein function of A. dahurica concentrated in the general functional prediction, posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones and signal transduction mechanisms. GO functional classification indicated that the genes of A. dahurica concentrated on cell biological processes and components. KEGG analysis found that the A. dahurica genes mostly involved in metabolic pathways.(3)And 45 genes of BGLU family were identified in A. dahurica. In this study, the whole genome of A. dahurica is resolved by the third-generation sequencing technology for the first time, which provides important theoretical references for the systematic biological study and the further study of the function of BGLU in the growth and development of A. dahurica.
    2024,44(4):777-792    [Abstract](778)    [PDF](233)